Posttraumatic Stress Reactions after Injury.
Joy, Deborah BA; Probert, Rachel BSc; Bisson, Jonathan I. BM, MRCPsych, Dip Clin Psychotherapy; Shepherd, Jonathan P. MSc, PhD, FDS
Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection & Critical Care.
48(3):490-494, March 2000.
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Background: Many individuals experience psychological distress after injury. It is unclear whether poor psychological outcome reflects pretrauma variables.
Methods: In a prospective, cross-sectional study, 152 accident and emergency department patients with physical injuries and an acute stress reaction completed trauma and psychometric questionnaires, including the Impact of Event Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.
Results: Although levels of pretrauma social, occupational, and familial functioning were high, and the modal Abbreviated Injury Scale score was 1, there were high levels of psychological distress at 3 weeks. Mean Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale anxiety and depression scores were 11.8 (SD, 4.4) and 8.7 (SD, 4.4), respectively. The mean total Impact of Event Scale score was 46.0 (SD, 16.1). Stepwise linear regression analysis found unemployment and previous history of trauma to be associated with increased symptoms of traumatic stress.
Conclusion: Trauma patients with high levels of pretrauma functioning may develop acute psychological distress. Unemployment and previous trauma increase risk. Psychological well-being should be considered in routine injury assessments.
(C) 2000 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.