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Background: Urgent treatment with tranexamic acid (TXA) reduces bleeding deaths but there is disagreement about which patients should be treated. We examine the effects of TXA treatment in severely and non-severely injured trauma patients.

Study Design and Methods: We did an individual patient data meta-analysis of randomized trials with over 1000 trauma patients that assessed the effects of TXA on survival. We defined the severity of injury according to characteristics at first assessment: systolic blood pressure of less than 90 mm Hg and a heart rate greater than 120 beats per minute or Glasgow Coma Scale score of less than nine or any GCS with one or more fixed dilated pupils. The primary measure was survival on the day of the injury. We examined the effect of TXA on survival in severely and non-severely injured patients and how these effects vary with the time from injury to treatment.

Results: We obtained data for 32,944 patients from two randomized trials. Tranexamic acid significantly increased survival on the day of the injury (OR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.11-1.34; p < .01). The effect of tranexamic acid on survival in non-severely injured patients (OR = 1.25, 1.03-1.50) was similar to that in severely injured patients (OR = 1.22, 1.09-1.37) with no significant heterogeneity (p = .87). In severely and non-severely injured pateints, treatment within the first hour after injury was the most effective.

Discussion: Early tranexamic acid treatment improves survival in both severely and non-severely injured trauma patients. Its use should not be restricted to the severely injured.

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