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BACKGROUND: Moderate-to-severe hemophilia B is treated with lifelong, continuous coagulation factor IX replacement to prevent bleeding. Gene therapy for hemophilia B aims to establish sustained factor IX activity, thereby protecting against bleeding without burdensome factor IX replacement.

METHODS: In this open-label, phase 3 study, after a lead-in period (>=6 months) of factor IX prophylaxis, we administered one infusion of adeno-associated virus 5 (AAV5) vector expressing the Padua factor IX variant (etranacogene dezaparvovec; 2x1013 genome copies per kilogram of body weight) to 54 men with hemophilia B (factor IX activity <=2% of the normal value) regardless of preexisting AAV5 neutralizing antibodies. The primary end point was the annualized bleeding rate, evaluated in a noninferiority analysis comparing the rate during months 7 through 18 after etranacogene dezaparvovec treatment with the rate during the lead-in period. Noninferiority of etranacogene dezaparvovec was defined as an upper limit of the two-sided 95% Wald confidence interval of the annualized bleeding rate ratio that was less than the noninferiority margin of 1.8. Superiority, additional efficacy measures, and safety were also assessed.

RESULTS: The annualized bleeding rate decreased from 4.19 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.22 to 5.45) during the lead-in period to 1.51 (95% CI, 0.81 to 2.82) during months 7 through 18 after treatment, for a rate ratio of 0.36 (95% Wald CI, 0.20 to 0.64; P<0.001), demonstrating noninferiority and superiority of etranacogene dezaparvovec as compared with factor IX prophylaxis. Factor IX activity had increased from baseline by a least-squares mean of 36.2 percentage points (95% CI, 31.4 to 41.0) at 6 months and 34.3 percentage points (95% CI, 29.5 to 39.1) at 18 months after treatment, and usage of factor IX concentrate decreased by a mean of 248,825 IU per year per participant in the post-treatment period (P<0.001 for all three comparisons). Benefits and safety were observed in participants with predose AAV5 neutralizing antibody titers of less than 700. No treatment-related serious adverse events occurred.

CONCLUSIONS: Etranacogene dezaparvovec gene therapy was superior to prophylactic factor IX with respect to the annualized bleeding rate, and it had a favorable safety profile. (Funded by uniQure and CSL Behring; HOPE-B ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03569891.)

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