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Background: The objectives of the researchers are as follows: First, to investigate whether intraoperative or postoperative administration of Intravenous (IV) iron supplements in patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can contribute to the hemoglobin recovery during the postoperative period (between 4 and 8 weeks after surgery). Second, to examine whether the administration of IV iron supplements during or immediately after TKA in patients undergoing primary TKA can reduce the need for allogenic blood transfusion during hospitalization.

Methods: Articles published between January 1, 1990, and June 30, 2023 were searched in PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase. The population, intervention, comparison, and outcome of this study are as follows; Population: Patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty; Intervention: Administration of IV iron supplements during or immediately after surgery; Comparison: Non-administration of IV iron supplements; Outcome: Degree of hemoglobin recovery (between 4 and 8 weeks after surgery) and the need for blood transfusion during hospitalization.

Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the amount of change in hemoglobin between iron supplementation group and non-iron supplementation group. The effect size were -0.44 (95% confidence interval: -0.69 to -0.19, P value < .001) in all patients. This means that the amount of change in hemoglobin were significantly reduced in the iron supplementation group than in the non-iron supplementation group. There was a statistically significant difference for post-operative transfusion rate between 2 groups. The effect size were 0.28 (95% confidence interval: 0.10-0.81, P value = .02) in all patients. This means that the post-operative transfusion rate was significantly less in the iron supplementation group than in the non-iron supplementation group

Conclusion: The administration of IV iron supplements during or after TKA surgery increases hemoglobin recovery between 4 and 8 weeks after surgery and reduces the need for allogeneic blood transfusion during hospitalization.

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