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Background: Patients who had mechanical heart valves and an international normalized ratio (INR) of >5.0 should be managed by temporary cessation of vitamin K antagonist. This study aimed to investigate the safety of low-dose vitamin K1 in patients with mechanical heart valves who have supratherapeutic INR.

Methods: CINAHL, Cochran Library, Clinical trial.gov, OpenGrey, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Scopus were systematically searched from the inception up to October 2021 without language restriction. Studies comparing the safety of low-dose vitamin K1 treatment in patients with placebo or other anticoagulant reversal agents were included. We used a random-effect model for the meta-analysis. Publication bias was determined by a funnel plot with subsequent Begg's test and Egger's test.

Results: From 7529 retrieved studies, 3 randomized control trials were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled data demonstrated that low-dose vitamin K was not associated with thromboembolism rate (risk ratio [RR] = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.19-4.55) major bleeding rate (RR = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.07-4.82), and minor bleeding rate (RR = 0.60; 95% CI: 0.07-5.09). Subgroup and sensitivity analysis demonstrated the nonsignificant effect of low-dose vitamin K on the risk of thromboembolism. Publication bias was not apparent, according to Begg's test and Egger's test (P = .090 and 0.134, respectively).

Conclusion: The current evidence does not support the role of low-dose vitamin K as a trigger of thromboembolism in supratherapeutic INR patients with mechanical heart valves. Nevertheless, more well-designed studies with larger sample sizes are required to justify this research question.

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