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: Asthma is a common chronic respiratory disease affecting more than 300 million people worldwide. Clinical features of asthma and its immunological and molecular etiology vary significantly among patients. An understanding of the complexities of asthma has evolved to the point where precision medicine approaches, including microbiome analysis, are being increasingly recognized as an important part of disease management. Lung and gut microbiota play several important roles in the development, regulation, and maintenance of healthy immune responses. Dysbiosis and subsequent dysregulation of microbiota-related immunological processes affect the onset of the disease, its clinical characteristics, and responses to treatment. Bacteria and viruses are the most extensively studied microorganisms relating to asthma pathogenesis, but other microbes, including fungi and even archaea, can potently influence airway inflammation. This review focuses on recently discovered connections between lung and gut microbiota, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and archaea, and their influence on asthma.

: Dysregulation of microbiota-related immunological processes affects the onset of asthma, its clinical characteristics, and responses to treatment. Finlay et al. review connections between gut and lungs microbiota and its influence on allergic airway inflammation. This review covers not only the most well-known populations of microbes in the context of asthma-bacteria-but also discusses viruses, fungi, and archaea.

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