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Background: A persistent endoleak type II (ET II) after endovascular repair for aortic aneurysms is not always a benign condition and has been associated to sac expansion, rupture, and reintervention. A variety of different endovascular approaches are available for ET II treatment. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the currently available literature on transcaval embolization for ET II treatment after standard or complex endovascular aortic aneurysm repair.

Methods: This systematic review protocol was registered to the PROSPERO (CRD42021289686). The PRISMA guidelines and patient, intervention, comparison, outcome (P.I.C.O.) model was followed. A data search of the literature was conducted, using PubMed, EMBASE via Ovid, and CENTRAL databases, until September 30, 2021. Only studies reporting on ET II embolization using the transcaval approach after endovascular aneurysm repair were included. Studies reporting on different type of endoleak treatment or any other embolization approach were excluded. The quality of studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Primary outcomes were technical success and freedom from ET II persistence during follow-up; secondary outcomes were any postoperative complication associated with the transcaval embolization and need for reintervention.

Results: The search yielded 2861 articles in total. Eight articles were included, reporting on 117 patients and 128 transcaval embolizations. The indication for treatment was ET II presence with sac expansion of more than 5 mm; in two studies, the presence of persistent endoleak has set the indication to intervene. The technical success was 91.4% (117/128); a variety of embolic materials were used, including coils, thrombin, and glue. Three cases of deep vein thrombosis were recorded and the remaining morbidity and mortality were null. Follow-up was ranging between 0 and 25 months. Out of 8 studies, persistent ET II rate was 12.8% and 18 reinterventions were performed (14.1%,), including 10 transcaval coil embolizations (56%). Sac expansion was reported in 11 cases, out of 3 studies (17%). Only one case of death, not associated with transcaval embolization, was recorded.

Conclusions: Transcaval embolization for ET II treatment presents a high technical success and low mortality in the early and mid-term period. ET II persistence rate is low during the available 12-month follow-up.

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