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Background: We evaluated laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) on major co-morbidities (hypertension, type 2 diabetes / impaired glucose tolerance, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and on American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) operative risk score in high-risk super-obese patients undergoing two-stage laparoscopic biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (LBPD-DS).

Methods: 41 super-obese high-risk patients (mean BMI 57.3 /-6.5 kg/m2, age 44.6 /-9.7 years) were entered into a prospective study (BMI >=60, or BMI >=50 with at least two severe co-morbidities, no Prader-Willi syndrome, no conversion, minimum follow-up 12 months). 9 patients had BMI >=60. 17 patients (41.4%) had OSAS on C-PAP therapy. In 10 patients, at least one intragastric balloon had been positioned and 4 had undergone laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, all with unsatisfactory results. At surgery, 41.5% were classified ASA 4 and 58.5% as ASA 3 (mean ASA score 3.4 /-0.5). Patients underwent evaluation every 3 months postoperatively and were restaged at 12 months and/or before the second step.

Results: 60% of major co-morbidities were cured and 24% improved. Average BMI after 6 and 12 months was 44.5 /-8.1 and 40.8 /-8.5 respectively (mean follow-up 22.2 /-7.1 months). After 12 months, 57.8% of the patients were co-morbidity-free and 31.5% had only one major co-morbid condition. At restaging, 20% of patients were still classified as ASA score 4 (OSAS on C-PAP therapy). 3 patients showed BMI <30 and were co-morbidity-free 12 months after LSG.

Conclusions: LSG represents a safe and effective procedure to achieve marked weight loss as well as significant reduction of major obesity-related co-morbidities. The procedure reduced the operative risk (ASA score) in super-obese patients undergoing two-stage LBPD-DS.

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