Effects of Stimulant Medication on Growth Rates Across 3 Years in the MTA Follow-up.
SWANSON, JAMES M. Ph.D.; ELLIOTT, GLEN R. Ph.D., M.D.; GREENHILL, LAURENCE L. M.D.; WIGAL, TIMOTHY Ph.D.; ARNOLD, L. EUGENE M.D.; VITIELLO, BENEDETTO M.D.; HECHTMAN, LILY M.D.; EPSTEIN, JEFFERY N. Ph.D.; PELHAM, WILLIAM E. Ph.D.; ABIKOFF, HOWARD B. Ph.D.; NEWCORN, JEFFREY H. M.D.; MOLINA, BROOKE S.G. Ph.D.; HINSHAW, STEPHEN P. Ph.D.; WELLS, KAREN C. Ph.D.; HOZA, BETSY Ph.D.; JENSEN, PETER S. M.D.; GIBBONS, ROBERT D. Ph.D.; HUR, KWAN Ph.D.; STEHLI, ANNAMARIE M.P.H.; DAVIES, MARK M.S.; MARCH, JOHN S. M.D., M.P.H.; CONNERS, C. KEITH Ph.D.; CARON, MARK Ph.D.; VOLKOW, NORA D. M.D.
Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry.
46(8):1015-1027, August 2007.
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Objective: To evaluate the hypothesis of stimulant medication effect on physical growth in the follow-up phase of the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With ADHD.
Method: Naturalistic subgroups were established based on patterns of treatment with stimulant medication at baseline, 14-, 24-, and 36-month assessments: not medicated (n = 65), newly medicated (n = 88), consistently medicated (n = 70), and inconsistently medicated (n = 147). Analysis of variance was used to evaluate effects of subgroup and assessment time on measures of relative size (z scores) obtained from growth norms.
Results: The subgroup x assessment time interaction was significant for z height (p <.005) and z weight (p <.0001), due primarily to divergence of the newly medicated and the not medicated subgroups. These initially stimulant-naive subgroups had z scores significantly >0 at baseline. The newly medicated subgroup showed decreases in relative size that reached asymptotes by the 36-month assessment, when this group showed average growth of 2.0 cm and 2.7 kg less than the not medicated subgroup, which showed slight increases in relative size.
Conclusions: Stimulant-naive school-age children with Combined type attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder were, as a group, larger than expected from norms before treatment but show stimulant-related decreases in growth rates after initiation of treatment, which appeared to reach asymptotes within 3 years without evidence of growth rebound.
Copyright 2007 (C) American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry