Review of Venous Anatomy for Venographic Interpretation in Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency.
Werner, John D. MD; Siskin, Gary P. MD *; Mandato, Kenneth MD; Englander, Meridith MD; Herr, Allen MD
Journal of Vascular & Interventional Radiology.
22(12):1681-1690, December 2011.
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: Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) represents a recently described condition that may potentially contribute to the symptoms experienced by patients with multiple sclerosis. The evaluation of a prospective patient for CCSVI often involves an invasive evaluation with venography of the internal jugular and azygos veins. The purpose of this article is to review the normal anatomy of the internal jugular, vertebral, and azygos veins, as an understanding of these veins is necessary for appropriate interpretation of the venograms obtained to evaluate patients for CCSVI.
(C) Copyright 2011 Society of Cardiovascular & Interventional Radiology