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The magnitude and location of the axis of tibial rotation were measured at 15[degrees] increments between 0[degrees] and 90[degrees] flexion using 24 normal anatomic knee specimens, and their changes with flexion angle were investigated. The magnitude of tibial rotation was small (8.3[degrees]) at 0[degrees] flexion, but increased rapidly as the flexion angle increased and reached a maximum rotation (31.7[degrees]) at 30[degrees] flexion. It then decreased again with additional flexion (24.8[degrees] at 90[degrees] flexion). The location of the axis was close to the tibial insertion of the anterior cruciate ligament at 0[degrees] flexion, gradually moving toward insertion of the posterior cruciate ligament (observed at 45[degrees] and 60[degrees] flexion), and then moved anteriorly again with additional flexion: the axis was approximately equidistant from the two cruciate insertions at 90[degrees] flexion. The results showed that a relatively large degree of tibial rotation was possible in a normal knee and that the location of the axis remained approximately in the area between the two cruciate ligament insertions throughout the range of flexion. However, the location of the axis changed with the flexion angle within this area according to the changes in direction and tension of the cruciate ligaments and the surrounding soft tissues.

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