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Objective: Tracheal intubation in the pediatric intensive care unit is often performed in emergency situations with high risks. Simulation has been recognized as an effective methodology to train both technical and teamwork skills. Our objectives were to develop a feasible tool to evaluate team performance during tracheal intubation in the pediatric intensive care unit and to apply the tool in the clinical setting to determine whether multidisciplinary teams with a higher number of simulation-trained providers exhibit more proficient performance.

Design: Prospective, observational pilot study.

Setting: Single tertiary children's hospital pediatric intensive care unit.

Subjects: Pediatric and emergency medicine residents, pediatric intensive care unit nurses, and respiratory therapists from October 2007 to June 2008.

Interventions: A pediatric intensive care unit on-call resident, a pediatric intensive care unit nurse, and a respiratory therapist received simulation-based multidisciplinary airway management training every morning. An assessment tool for team technical and behavioral skills was developed. Independent trained observers rated actual intubations in the pediatric intensive care unit by using this tool.

Measurements and Main Results: For observer training, two independent raters (research assistants 1 and 2) evaluated a total of 53 training sessions (research assistant 1, 16; research assistant 2, 37). The correlation coefficient with the facilitator expert (surrogate standard) was .73 for research assistant 1 and .88 for research assistant 2 (p <= .001 for both) in the total score, .84 for research assistant 1 and .77 for research assistant 2 (p < .001 for both) in the technical domain, and .63 for research assistant 1 (p = .009) and .84 for research assistant 2 (p < .001) in the behavioral domain. The correlation coefficient was lower in video-based observation (.62 vs. .88, on-site). For clinical observation, 15 intubations were observed in real time by raters. The performance by a team with two or more simulation-trained members was rated higher compared with the team with fewer than two trained members (total score: 127 /- 6 vs. 116 /- 9, p = .012, mean /- sd).

Conclusions: It is feasible to rate the technical and behavioral performance of multidisciplinary airway management teams during real intensive care unit intubation events by using our assessment tool. The presence of two or more multidisciplinary simulation-trained providers is associated with improved performance during real events.

(C)2011The Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies