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Purpose: To review the current state of evaluation and management of various forms of endophthalmitis.

Methods: A review of the literature is included, encompassing endophthalmitis occurring after ocular surgeries, intravitreal injection, trauma, and systemic infection. Based on this review, current principles and techniques for evaluating and treating these forms of endophthalmitis are discussed.

Results: Postoperative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery is the most common presentation. Conclusions from the Endophthalmitis Vitrectomy Study (EVS) remain a foundation for management of postcataract surgery endophthalmitis, notably prompt intravitreal antibiotic administration after vitreous sampling, with consideration for pars plana vitrectomy in severe cases. The potential impact of advances since the EVS, such as oral fourth generation fluoroquinolones and new vitrectomy techniques, are also discussed. The management of postcataract endophthalmitis is compared and contrasted to endophthalmitis occurring after other ocular surgeries, intravitreal injection, trauma, and systemic infection. Although some principles remain common, treatment rationales differ with other forms of endophthalmitis based on differing clinical circumstances, such as the virulence of organisms that are frequently encountered.

Conclusions: Endophthalmitis is a serious, potentially vision threatening condition which can present in various settings. Prompt recognition and treatment are key in maximizing outcomes.

(C) The Ophthalmic Communications Society, Inc.