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COMPLEX vocal responses in both the audible and ultrasonic frequency ranges were elicited by a single 2 ms electrical pulse applied to the tail. The first two cries exhibited consistent latencies and durations, were intensity-dependent and were triggered by peripheral fibres with conduction velocities of 7.3 /- 0.8 and 0.7 /- 0.1 ms-1, respectively. These behavioural responses are reminiscent of first and second pain triggered by A[delta]- and C-peripheral fibres in humans. They were followed by irregular audible cries with a fundamental frequency of 1.5kHz and '22 kHz ultrasonic calls'.

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