Short-Term Effects of Ambient Particles on Cardiovascular and Respiratory Mortality.
Analitis, Antonis *; Katsouyanni, Klea *; Dimakopoulou, Konstantina *; Samoli, Evangelia *; Nikoloulopoulos, Aristidis K. *; Petasakis, Yannis *; Touloumi, Giota *; Schwartz, Joel +; Anderson, Hugh Ross ++; Cambra, Koldo [S]; Forastiere, Francesco [//]; Zmirou, Denis [P]; Vonk, Judith M. **; Clancy, Luke ++; Kriz, Bohumir ++++; Bobvos, Janos [S][S]; Pekkanen, Juha [//][//]
17(2):230-233, March 2006.
(Format: HTML, PDF)
Background: Particulate air pollution is associated with increased mortality. There is a need for European results from multicountry databases concerning cause-specific mortality to obtain more accurate effect estimates.
Methods: We report the estimated effects of ambient particle concentrations (black smoke and particulate matter less than 10 [mu]m [PM10]) on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality, from 29 European cities, within the Air Pollution and Health: a European Approach (APHEA2) project. We applied a 2-stage hierarchical modeling approach assessing city-specific effects first and then overall effects. City characteristics were considered as potential effect modifiers.
Results: An increase in PM10 by 10 [mu]g/m3 (lag 0 1) was associated with increases of 0.76% (95% confidence interval = 0.47 to 1.05%) in cardiovascular deaths and 0.58% (0.21 to 0.95%) in respiratory deaths. The same increase in black smoke was associated with increases of 0.62% (0.35 to 0.90%) and 0.84% (0.11 to 1.57%), respectively.
Conclusions: These effect estimates are appropriate for health impact assessment and standard-setting procedures.
(C) 2006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.