Normal Development of the Tibiofemoral Angle in Children: A Clinical Study of 590 Normal Subjects From 3 to 17 Years of Age.
Arazi, Mehmet M.D.; Ogun, Tunc C. M.D.; Memik, Recep M.D.
Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics.
21(2):264-267, March/April 2001.
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Summary: In evaluation of genu varum-genu valgum, tibiofemoral (TF) angle and intercondylar (IC) or intermalleolar (IM) distance are commonly measured. In this study, we determined mean values and normal limits for TF angle and IC/IM distance in 590 normal Turkish children (287 girls and 303 boys) aged from 3 to 17 years using clinical methods. We noted a significantly higher degree of valgus angle than that in previous reports. The maximal mean valgus angle was 9.6 degrees at 7 years for boys and 9.8 degrees at 6 years for girls. These differences were considered racial differences between Turkish children and those of other races. Turkish children, aged between 3 and 17 years, exhibited <=11 degrees physiologic valgus. A measurable varus angle or a valgus higher than 11 degrees during this period should be considered abnormal.
(C) 2001 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.