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The objective of this study was to further explore previously identified effects of supplemental ribonucleotides on infant immune status as measured by antibody responses to routine infant immunizations. Infants were randomized to a milk-based formula with (FN, n = 138) or without (F, n = 147) 72 mg ribonucleotides/L. A cohort of human milk-fed (HMF, n = 192) infants was also followed. Subjects were given Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), diphtheria tetanus acellular pertussis, and oral poliovirus vaccinations at 2, 4, and 6 mo of age, and specific antibody responses were assessed at 2, 6, 7, and 12 mo. Growth and safety data were also monitored. Using a two-group repeated measures analysis (RMA), FN-fed infants had significantly higher poliovirus type 1 neutralizing antibody (PV-VN1) responses than F-fed infants (p = 0.045). Using three-group RMA, PV-VN1 responses in HMF infants were not different from FN-fed infants, while HMF-fed infant PV-VN1 responses were significantly higher than F-fed infants at 6 (p = 0.0004) and 12 mo (p = 0.0001). FN-fed infants had responses to Hib Farr, diphtheria, tetanus toxoid, oral poliovirus-specific IgA, and PV-VN3 not significantly different from those of F and HMF infants. Growth, gastrointestinal tolerance, and adverse events were equivalent among the three groups. The FN-associated increase in PV-VN1 response and nonstatistically significant trends toward increased Hib and diphtheria antibody responses were consistent with observations from earlier studies, indicating immune benefits of nucleotide supplementation of infant formula.

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