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Background-: The natural history of myopericarditis/perimyocarditis is poorly known, and recently published studies have presented contrasting data on their outcomes. The aim of the present article is to assess the prognosis of myopericarditis/perimyocarditis in a multicenter, prospective cohort study.

Methods and Results-: A total of 486 patients (median age, 39 years; range, 18-83 years; 300 men) with acute pericarditis or a myopericardial inflammatory syndrome (myopericarditis/perimyocarditis; 85% idiopathic, 11% connective tissue disease or inflammatory bowel disease, 5% infective) were prospectively evaluated from January 2007 to December 2011. The diagnosis of acute pericarditis was based on the presence of 2 of 4 clinical criteria (chest pain, pericardial rubs, widespread ST-segment elevation or PR depression, and new or worsening pericardial effusion). Myopericardial inflammatory involvement was suspected with atypical ECG changes for pericarditis, arrhythmias, and cardiac troponin elevation or new or worsening ventricular dysfunction on echocardiography and confirmed by cardiac magnetic resonance. After a median follow-up of 36 months, normalization of left ventricular function was achieved in >90% of patients with myopericarditis/perimyocarditis. No deaths were recorded, as well as evolution to heart failure or symptomatic left ventricular dysfunction. Recurrences (mainly as recurrent pericarditis) were the most common complication during follow-up and were recorded more frequently in patients with acute pericarditis (32%) than in those with myopericarditis (11%) or perimyocarditis (12%; P<0.001). Troponin elevation was not associated with an increase in complications.

Conclusions-: The outcome of myopericardial inflammatory syndromes is good. Unlike acute coronary syndromes, troponin elevation is not a negative prognostic marker in this setting.

(C) 2013 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation and the American Heart Association, Inc.