Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Mediate the Effects of Trauma Exposure on Clinical Indicators of Central Sensitization in Patients With Chronic Pain.
McKernan, Lindsey C. PhD *,+; Johnson, Benjamin N. MS ++; Crofford, Leslie J. MD [S]; Lumley, Mark A. PhD [//]; Bruehl, Stephen PhD [P]; Cheavens, Jennifer S. PhD #
Clinical Journal of Pain.
35(5):385-393, May 2019.
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Objective: Evidence supports high rates of co-occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and chronic pain disorders involving central sensitization (CS). The nature of this relationship, however, remains relatively unexplored. In this study, we aimed to (1) assess how both trauma exposure and current PTSD symptoms are related to clinical manifestations of CS, and (2) test whether PTSD symptoms explain the relationship between trauma exposure and CS. Because experiential avoidance has been shown to impact the relationship between trauma and health outcomes, we (3) explored experiential avoidance as a possible mediator or moderator of the trauma-CS relationship.
Methods: A sample of 202 adult patients (79% female) with chronic pain completed validated self-report measures of trauma exposure, current PTSD symptoms, experiential avoidance, and 3 manifestations of CS: widespread pain, greater pain severity, and polysomatic symptom reporting. We used path analysis and multivariate regression to assess our study aims.
Results: Both trauma exposure and PTSD symptoms were significantly associated with all 3 clinical indicators of CS. PTSD symptoms partially explained the relationship between trauma exposure and widespread pain, pain intensity, and polysomatic symptoms. Experiential avoidance did not mediate or moderate the trauma-CS relationship.
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that trauma exposure is linked to elevated clinical markers of CS but a critical factor in this relationship is the mediating effect of current PTSD symptoms.
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