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Background: The effects of coffee on myocardial infarction are uncertain. We hypothesize that coffee in the presence of predisposing factors can induce a cascade of events that, through sympathetic nervous activation, can induce the onset of myocardial infarction.

Methods: We recruited 503 incident cases of nonfatal myocardial infarction between 1994 and 1998 in Costa Rica. We used a case-crossover design to calculate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs).

Results: The RR of myocardial infarction in the hour after coffee intake was 1.49 (95% CI = 1.17-1.89). Occasional coffee drinkers (<=1 cup/day, n = 103) had a RR of myocardial infarction of 4.14 (2.03-8.42), moderate coffee drinkers (2-3 cups/day, n = 280) had a RR of 1.60 (1.16-2.21), and heavy coffee drinkers (>=4 cups/d, n = 120) had a RR of 1.06 (0.69-1.63; P = 0.006, test of homogeneity). Patients with 3 or more risk factors (n = 101) had a RR of myocardial infarction of 2.10 (1.30-3.39), whereas patients with fewer than 3 risk factors (n = 396) had a RR of 1.39 (1.04-1.82; P = 0.15, test of homogeneity); and RR was 1.72 (1.30-2.30) among sedentary patients compared with 1.07 (0.66-1.72) among nonsedentary (P = 0.10, test of homogeneity).

Conclusions: The findings indicate that coffee intake may trigger myocardial infarction. The association is particularly strong among people with light/occasional intake of coffee (<=1 cup/day), with sedentary lifestyle, or with 3 or more risk factors for coronary heart disease.

(C) 2006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.