Correction of acute traumatic coagulopathy with small-volume 7.5% NaCl adenosine, lidocaine, and Mg2+ occurs within 5 minutes: A ROTEM analysis.
Letson, Hayley L. MSc; Dobson, Geoffrey P. PhD
Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery.
78(4):773-783, April 2015.
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BACKGROUND: Acute traumatic coagulopathy is a major contributor to mortality and morbidity following hemorrhagic shock. Our aim was to examine the effect of small-volume 7.5% NaCl with adenosine, lidocaine, and Mg2 (ALM) resuscitation on the timing of correction of coagulopathy in the rat model of severe hemorrhagic shock using ROTEM.
METHODS: Male rats (300-450 g, n = 64) were randomly assigned to (1) baseline, (2) sham, (3) bleed, (4) shock, (5) 7.5% NaCl for 5 minutes, (6) 7.5% NaCl with ALM for 5 minutes, (7) 7.5% NaCl for 60 minutes, or (8) 7.5% NaCl with ALM for 60 minutes (all n = 8). For resuscitation, 0.3-mL intravenous bolus of 7.5% NaCl was administered with and without ALM (n = 8 each group). Hemodynamics and coagulopathy were assessed.
RESULTS: After hemorrhage, prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) increased approximately four to six times, and ROTEM indicated hypocoagulopathy. After 60-minute shock, no sustainable clots could form. 7.5% NaCl increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) to 46 /- 2 mm Hg at 5 minutes and generated a weak clot in EXTEM with hyperfibrinolysis in all tests. At 60 minutes, 7.5% NaCl failed to sustain MAP (43 /- 5 mm Hg) and generate a viable clot. In direct contrast, 7.5% NaCl with ALM at 5 minutes resuscitated MAP to 64 /- 3 mm Hg, corrected PT and aPTT, and generated fully formed EXTEM and FIBTEM clots. At 60 minutes, MAP was 69 /- 5 mm Hg, PT and aPTT were fully corrected, and [alpha] angle, clot amplitudes (A10, A30), as well as clot firmness and elasticity were not significantly different from baseline. ALM clot lysis at 60 minutes was significantly less than bleed, shock, or 7.5% NaCl, indicating protection against hyperfibrinolysis.
CONCLUSION: Small-volume 7.5% NaCl failed to resuscitate and correct coagulopathy. In contrast, 7.5% NaCl with ALM resuscitated MAP and corrected coagulopathy at 5 minutes, with further improvements at 60 minutes in clot kinetics, propagation, and firmness. ALM fully reversed hyperfibrinolysis to baseline. The possible mechanisms are discussed.
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