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Candow, DG, Chilibeck, PD, Burke, DG, Mueller, KD, and Lewis, JD. Effect of different frequencies of creatine supplementation on muscle size and strength in young adults. J Strength Cond Res 25(7): 1831-1838, 2011-The purpose was to determine if creatine supplementation, consumed immediately before and immediately after exercise, with different dosing frequency (i.e., 2 or 3 d wk-1) could enhance the gains in muscle size and strength from resistance training (RT) in young adults. A group of 38 physically active, nonresistance trained university students (21-28 years) was randomly allocated to 1 of 4 groups: CR2 (0.15 g[middle dot]kg-1 creatine during 2 d wk-1 of RT; 3 sets of 10 repetitions; n = 11, 6 men, 5 women), CR3 (0.10 g[middle dot]kg-1 creatine during 3 d wk-1 of RT; 2 sets of 10 repetitions; n = 11, 6 men, 5 women;), PLA2 (placebo during 2 d wk-1 of RT; n = 8, 5 men, 3 women), and PLA3 (placebo during 3 d wk-1 of RT; n = 8, 4 men, 4 women) for 6 weeks. Before and after training, measurements were taken for muscle thickness of the elbow and knee flexor and extensor muscle groups (ultrasound), 1-repetition maximumleg press and chest press strength, and kidney function (urinary microalbumin). Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed that strength and muscle thickness increased in all groups with training (p < 0.05). The CR2 (0.6 /- 0.9 cm or 20%; p < 0.05) and CR3 groups (0.4 /- 0.6 cm or 16.4%; p < 0.05) experienced greater change in muscle thickness of the elbow flexors compared to the PLA2 (0.05 /- 0.5 cm or 2.3%) and PLA3 groups (0.13 /- 0.7 cm or 6.3%). Men supplementing with creatine experienced a greater increase in leg press strength (77.3 /- 51.2 kg or 62%) compared to women on creatine (21.3 /- 10 kg or 34%, p < 0.05). We conclude that creatine supplementation during RT has a small beneficial effect on regional muscle thickness in young adults but that giving the creatine over 3 d wk-1 did not differ from giving the same dose over 2 d wk-1.

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