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Background-: Re-stenting of in-stent restenosis (ISR) improves acute angiographic results.

Methods and Results-: Volumetric intravascular ultrasound analysis was performed in 70 ISR lesions that received either placebo (n=36) or 192Ir radiation (n=34). ISR lesions treated by re-stenting were divided into 3 groups: old stent not re-stented (A), old/new stent overlap (B), and new stent only (C). ISR lesions treated without re-stenting were categorized as D. In placebo patients, postintervention lumen volume index (LVI) was significantly greater in re-stented segments B and C than in non-re-stented segment A (P <0.05).At follow-up, however, LVI was similar in all 4 segments secondary to the increased intimal hyperplasia (IH) reaccumulation within the re-stented segments. In patients treated with 192Ir radiation, LVI was maintained from baseline to follow-up only in non-re-stented segments A and D. Conversely, there was a significant decrease in LVI in re-stented segments B and C (P <0.05). Qualitatively, 79% of patients in the irradiated group had stent struts with undetectable neointimal versus only 27% in the placebo group (P <0.001). Coefficient of variation of IH reaccumulation was greater in re-stented segments of 192Ir patients (B=57.3% and C=58.9%) than in re-stented segments in placebo patients (B=27.3% and C 26.8%) and non-re-stented segments in irradiated patients.

Conclusions-: Additional lumen gain from re-stenting ISR lesions is counteracted by exaggerated neointimal proliferation in placebo patients. Maximum effectiveness and safety of radiation can be achieved for ISR lesions when treated without re-stenting. Thus, regardless of supplementary intravascular brachytherapy, repeat stenting strategies provided little long-term advantage.

(C) 2002 American Heart Association, Inc.