Relationship of Pass/Fail Grading and Curriculum Structure With Well-Being Among Preclinical Medical Students: A Multi-Institutional Study.
Reed, Darcy A. MD, MPH; Shanafelt, Tait D. MD; Satele, Daniel W.; Power, David V. MD, MPH; Eacker, Anne MD; Harper, William MD; Moutier, Christine MD; Durning, Steven MD; Massie, F. Stanford Jr MD; Thomas, Matthew R. MD; Sloan, Jeff A. PhD; Dyrbye, Liselotte N. MD, MHPE
86(11):1367-1373, November 2011.
(Format: HTML, PDF)
Purpose: Psychological distress is common among medical students. Curriculum structure and grading scales are modifiable learning environment factors that may influence student well-being. The authors sought to examine relationships among curriculum structures, grading scales, and student well-being.
Method: The authors surveyed 2,056 first- and second-year medical students at seven U.S. medical schools in 2007. They used the Perceived Stress Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (SF-8) to measure stress, burnout, and quality of life, respectively. They measured curriculum structure using hours spent in didactic, clinical, and testing experiences. Grading scales were categorized as two categories (pass/fail) versus three or more categories (e.g., honors/pass/fail).
Results: Of the 2,056 students, 1,192 (58%) responded. In multivariate analyses, students in schools using grading scales with three or more categories had higher levels of stress (beta 2.65; 95% CI 1.54-3.76, P < .0001), emotional exhaustion (beta 5.35; 95% CI 3.34-7.37, P < .0001), and depersonalization (beta 1.36; 95% CI 0.53-2.19, P = .001) and were more likely to have burnout (OR 2.17; 95% CI 1.41-3.35, P = .0005) and to have seriously considered dropping out of school (OR 2.24; 95% CI 1.54-3.27, P < .0001) compared with students in schools using pass/fail grading. There were no relationships between time spent in didactic and clinical experiences and well-being.
Conclusions: How students are evaluated has a greater impact than other aspects of curriculum structure on their well-being. Curricular reform intended to enhance student well-being should incorporate pass/fail grading.
(C) 2011 Association of American Medical Colleges