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Neuroendocrine differentiation in tumors of the upper and lower urinary tracts, prostate, and testis is rare. The current review surveys the most significant pathologic and clinical features of primary neuroendocrine lesions at these sites, with emphasis on the cell types from which they derive. As many tumors in this spectrum often bear strong morphologic resemblance to similar neoplasms in other organs, the importance of considering secondary involvement of the genitourinary tract cannot be overstated.

(C) 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.