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Learning Objectives: After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Evaluate appropriate patients best suited for one- or two-stage alloplastic breast reconstruction. 2. Discuss and apply the unique advantages and disadvantages of scaffold use and different implant types in breast reconstruction to maximize outcomes. 3. Develop a plan for patients undergoing implant-based breast reconstruction requiring postmastectomy radiation therapy. 4. Analyze the evidence with regard to antibiotic prophylaxis in implant-based breast reconstruction. 5. Recognize and critique novel technical and device developments in the field of alloplastic breast reconstruction, enabling appropriate patient selection.

Summary: Implant-based, or alloplastic, breast reconstruction is the most common method of breast reconstruction in the United States. Within implant-based reconstruction, many techniques and reconstructive strategies exist that must be tailored for each individual patient to yield a successful reconstruction. Not unexpectedly, many hot topics and controversies in this field have emerged, including stages of reconstruction, use of scaffolds, permanent implant type, strategies for postmastectomy radiation therapy, and antibiotic prophylaxis. In addition, there has been an evolution in technical and device development in recent years. Therefore, plastic surgeons must be on the forefront of knowledge to approach implant-based breast reconstruction in an evidence-based fashion to best treat their patients.

(C)2019American Society of Plastic Surgeons