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This study compared percutaneous transtracheal jet ventilation (PTJV) at a frequency (f) of 20/min, with high-frequency positive-pressure ventilation (HFPPV) at f of 60/min, and endotracheal intubation and intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (ET IPPV) at f of 10/min in apneic dogs. Fifty-four emergency medicine trainees (EMTs) attempted PTJV via a 14-gauge Angiocath attached to a hand-held jet ventilator, f of 20/min, and ET IPPV using an Ambu bag, f of 10/min. Twenty-nine other EMTs attempted cricothyrotomy using a prototype nonkinkable catheter (Arrow) and a new jet ventilator, Bronchovent, f of 60/min, equipped with a pressure sensor which stops ventilation at pressures greater than 20 cm H2O. Adequate oxygenation was achieved by all 3 groups, but only the HFPPV group avoided respiratory alkalosis. There was a higher equipment failure rate (catheter kinking and dislodgment) in the PTJV group. In the HFPPV group, the Bronchovent's pressure-limiting sensor stopped ventilation when the catheter was kinked or out of position, reducing the extent of subcutaneous emphysema and barotrauma. With further catheter improvements, HFPPV Bronchovent may offer a safe and reliable method of ventilating patients during CPR in the field.

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